Shareholder yield has gained increased attention in recent months as a key valuation metric. The measure compares the cash flow a firm is “returning to shareholders” to a stock’s market value. Shareholder yield is similar to the price-to-free cash flow ratio or enterprise value-to-EBITDA. Like those more traditional measures, shareholder yield attempts to show the relationship between cash generated by an investment and the cost of that investment. International Petroleum Corporation (IPCO.TO)’s currently has a shareholder yield of -0.862105.
As we move deeper into the year, investors will be paying attention to which companies are well-positioned for future growth. Even if the current earnings reports are a mixed bag, investors can study which industries look they are taking the top spot. Many active investors may be focusing on which way estimates are trending heading into the company earnings release. Analysts will often make updates to projections shortly before and after the earnings numbers are provided. Many active investors may enjoy the volatility that comes with trading around earnings, but others will choose to let the heavy action pass before deciding which stocks to buy or sell next.
Price to Sales
In the original edition of ‘What works on Wall Street’, O’Shaughnessy wrote that the single-best value factor was a company’s price-to-sales ratio (P/S). In his latest edition the P/S continues to perform well, but it was unseated by the value composites and EBITDA/EV due to 2 reasons: (1) A broader scope of analysis by using deciles and (2) two very bad years for P/S, e.g. 2007 and 2008. A stock’s P/S is similar to its P/E ratio, but it measures the price of the company against its annual sales instead of earnings.
It’s calculated as follows:
Price-to-Sales Ratio = Market Cap/Net Sales or Revenues
International Petroleum Corporation (IPCO.TO) has a price to sales ratio of 1.469745.
Total Asset Growth
In their 2008 paper, professors Cooper, Gulen and Schill provided evidence that a firm’s assets growth rates are strong predictors of future abnormal returns.
“The findings suggest that corporate events associated with asset expansion (i.e., acquisitions, public equity offerings, public debt offerings, and bank loan initiations) tend to be followed by periods of abnormally low returns, whereas events associated with asset contraction (i.e., spin-offs, share repurchases, debt prepayments, and dividend initiations) tend to be followed by periods of abnormally high returns.” – Cooper, Gulen & Shill in Asset Growth and the Cross-Section of Stock Returns. In a study on US data during the period 1967-2007, they find that:
– A hedge portfolio rebalanced annually that is long (short) the stocks of companies with the lowest (highest) percentage growth in total assets over the previous 12 months generates an average annual return of 22%.
– This asset growth effect is stronger for small capitalization stocks, but is still substantial for large capitalization stocks.
– The effect is strongest in the month of January.
– Asset growth rate retains large explanatory power for future stock returns after accounting for firm size, book-to-market ratio and momentum. In fact the asset growth effect is at least as powerful in explaining returns as these other widely used factors.
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We calculate asset growth as follows:
Total Asset Growth = (Total AssetsTotal Assets y-1) − 1. International Petroleum Corporation (IPCO.TO) has a total asset growth number of 0.30232.
External Financing Ratio
This factor was introduced by Richard Tortoriello, a senior quantitative analyist for S&P Capital IQ. He authored a book on quantitative analysis: Quantitative Strategies for Achieving Alpha (2009, McGraw Hill). In this book, he identified the External Financing Ratio as a factor that is very good at predicting investment underperformance.
External finance ratio = (Total Assets−Total Assets y-1−Cash Flow from Operations) / Total Assets
International Petroleum Corporation (IPCO.TO) has an external finance ratio of 0.051285.
Cash Flow on Capex
Another ratio S&P Analyst Richard Tortoriello recommends to use is ‘Operating Cash Flow to capital expenditure’. (‘Quantitative Strategies for Achieving Alpha’) This ratio is used by analysts to determine a company’s ability to fund operations. It helps to get a better understanding of whether a company is able to buy more assets without having to issue debt or equity.
A rising cash flow to capital expenditures ratio might indicate that the company is in a position to grow.
Please note that some industries are more capital intensive than others, which should be taken into account when evaluating companies.
Cash flow on Capex = Cash Flow from Operations / Capital Expenditure
The Cash Flow on Capex for International Petroleum Corporation (IPCO.TO) is 5.03398.
The ERP5 Rank is an investment tool that analysts use to discover undervalued companies. The ERP5 looks at the Price to Book ratio, Earnings Yield, ROIC and 5 year average ROIC. The ERP5 of International Petroleum Corporation (IPCO.TO) is 99999. The lower the ERP5 rank, the more undervalued a company is thought to be. The Piotroski F-Score is a scoring system between 1-9 that determines a firm’s financial strength. The score helps determine if a company’s stock is valuable or not. The Piotroski F-Score of International Petroleum Corporation (IPCO.TO) is 6. A score of nine indicates a high value stock, while a score of one indicates a low value stock. The score is calculated by the return on assets (ROA), Cash flow return on assets (CFROA), change in return of assets, and quality of earnings. It is also calculated by a change in gearing or leverage, liquidity, and change in shares in issue. The score is also determined by change in gross margin and change in asset turnover.
Doing the proper research can go a long way when preparing to enter the stock market. Professional investors typically make sure that all the necessary research is completed when making crucial decisions. Of course, all the research in the world cannot guarantee success in the markets, but it can help to keep the investor one step ahead of the class. Understanding how the stock market functions can help the investor gain the confidence to start conquering the terrain. Building confidence in investing decisions can play a big part in the future success of the individual’s portfolio.
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